Faculty ProfilesSusan Lynch, PhD
513 Parnassus Ave, Med Sci
San Francisco, CA 94122
Our human microbiome research program focuses on the gastrointestinal and airway microbiomes and their influence on the development and maintenance of chronic inflammatory disease. We study the early-life origins of chronic inflammatory disease and have demonstrated a role for the neonatal gut microbiome and its metabolic products as a predictor of allergic asthma development in childhood. We are also interested in established inflammatory conditions and have shown that distinct microbiota exist in adults with IBD, chronic sinusitus or HIV-infection, which relate to immunologically and pathologically distinct disease endotypes. Our group has pioneered the application of newly developed statistical approaches to the multi-dimensional microbiome data sets developed by next generation sequencing approaches. We have developed and made publicly available custom scripts and novel tools to facilitate such analyses. In addition, we have developed novel ex vivo assays to assess the capacity of human microbiota, specific microbial species or their products to elicit host immune responses ex vivo, providing an objective assessment of their immunomodulatory capacity. I founded and direct the Microbiome Research Core, and am the Associate Director of the Microbiome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Program at UCSF. I have also co-founded and serve as a board member of Siolta Therapeutics, a start-up company at QB3 that focuses on translating our bench-based human microbiome findings into effective therapeutics for prevention or treatment of immune disorders.
Education and Training
|Location||Degree or Training||Specialty||Date|
|University College Dublin||PhD||Mircobiology||2000|
|University College Dublin||BS||Microbiology/Biostatistics||1995|
Human Microbiome, Inflammation, early origins of inflammatory diseaseAwards and Honors
Distinguished Lecturer, American Society of Microbiology, 2017-2019
Global Thinker, Foreign Policy Magazine, 2016
Rebecca Buckley Lectureship, American Association for Allergy Asthma and Immunology, 2015
Women in Healthcare, International Innovationns, 2014
Irish Health and Science 100 award, 2013
Related Web Sites
In the News
- Science Friday with Ira Flatow (Jun 02, 2017)
- Foreign Policy Award (Dec 09, 2016)
- Study Sees Link Between Allergies and the Infant Gut (Oct 10, 2016)
- Altering gut microbes of babies could prevent asthma and allergies (Sep 12, 2016)
- Neonatal Gut Bacteria Might Promote Asthma (Sep 12, 2016)
- Culturing For Cures (Jun 03, 2014)
- Pets May Help Strengthen Kids REsistance to Allergies (Dec 24, 2013)
- Dogs Dust and the Microbiome - Wall Street Journal (Dec 16, 2013)
- Gut microbiome manipulation protects airways against allergen and viral infection (Dec 16, 2013)
- Dogs Dust and the Microbiome - The Scientist (Dec 16, 2013)
- Gut microbiome may fuel HIV-associated immune activation (Jul 10, 2013)
- Our Protective Microbiome - Carry the One Radio (May 01, 2013)
- Germs Are Us - The New Yorker (Oct 22, 2012)
- Bacteria in Balance - The Boston Globe (Oct 12, 2012)
- Science Friday with Ira Flatow - Sinus Microbiome (Sep 14, 2012)
- Sinusitis Linked to Microbial Diversity (Sep 12, 2012)
- Bacterial Sentinels of Noses - The Scientist (Sep 12, 2012)
- 7 Ways Dogs Can Help Your Health (Jun 19, 2012)
|Project Title||Project Number||Fiscal Year|
|Pets and the Infant Microbiome: Effect on Immune Maturation & Atopic Asthma||P01AI089473||2017|
|Sinusitis in Children and the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome||R01AI097172||2016|
Durack J, Lynch SV, Nariya S, Bhakta NR, Beigelman A, Castro M, Dyer AM, Israel E, Kraft M, Martin RJ, Mauger DT, Rosenberg SR, Sharp-King T, White SR, Woodruff PG, Avila PC, Denlinger LC, Holguin F, Lazarus SC, Lugogo N, Moore WC, Peters SP, Que L, Smith LJ, Sorkness CA, Wechsler M, Wenzel SE, Boushey HA, Huang YJ. Features of the bronchial bacterial microbiome associated with atopy, asthma and responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Nov 9.
Fujimura KE, Sitarik AR, Havstad S, Lin DL, Levan S, Fadrosh D, Panzer AR, LaMere B, Rackaityte E, Lukacs NW, Wegienka G, Boushey HA, Ownby DR, Zoratti EM, Levin AM, Johnson CC, Lynch SV. Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation. Nat Med. 2016 Oct; 22(10):1187-1191.
Levin AM, Sitarik AR, Havstad SL, Fujimura KE, Wegienka G, Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Kim H, Zoratti EM, Lukacs NW, Boushey HA, Ownby DR, Lynch SV, Johnson CC. Joint effects of pregnancy, sociocultural, and environmental factors on early life gut microbiome structure and diversity. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:31775.
Mar JS, LaMere BJ, Lin DL, Levan S, Nazareth M, Mahadevan U, Lynch SV. Disease Severity and Immune Activity Relate to Distinct Interkingdom Gut Microbiome States in Ethnically Distinct Ulcerative Colitis Patients. MBio. 2016; 7(4).
Shenoy MK, Iwai S, Lin DL, Worodria W, Ayakaka I, Byanyima P, Kaswabuli S, Fong S, Stone S, Chang E, Davis JL, Faruqi AA, Segal MR, Huang L, Lynch SV. Immune Response and Mortality Risk Relate to Distinct Lung Microbiomes in HIV-Pneumonia Patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul 22.
Belinson H, Savage AK, Fadrosh D, Kuo YM, Lin D, Valladares R, Nusse Y, Wynshaw-Boris A, Lynch SV, Locksley RM, Klein OD. Dual epithelial and immune cell function of Dvl1 regulates gut microbiota composition and intestinal homeostasis. JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 07; 1(10).
Santee CA, Nagalingam NA, Faruqi AA, DeMuri GP, Gern JE, Wald ER, Lynch SV. Nasopharyngeal microbiota composition of children is related to the frequency of upper respiratory infection and acute sinusitis. Microbiome. 2016; 4(1):34.
Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Wegienka G, Havstad S, Levin AM, Lynch SV, Ownby DR, Rundle AG, Woodcroft KJ, Zoratti EM, Johnson CC. Race-specific Association of Caesarean-Section Delivery with Body Size at Age 2 Years. Ethn Dis. 2016; 26(1):61-8.
DeMuri GP, Gern JE, Moyer SC, Lindstrom MJ, Lynch SV, Wald ER. Clinical Features, Virus Identification, and Sinusitis as a Complication of Upper Respiratory Tract Illness in Children Ages 4-7 Years. J Pediatr. 2016 Apr; 171:133-139.e1.
Levy BD, Noel PJ, Freemer MM, Cloutier MM, Georas SN, Jarjour NN, Ober C, Woodruff PG, Barnes KC, Bender BG, Camargo CA, Chupp GL, Denlinger LC, Fahy JV, Fitzpatrick AM, Fuhlbrigge A, Gaston BM, Hartert TV, Kolls JK, Lynch SV, Moore WC, Morgan WJ, Nadeau KC, Ownby DR, Solway J, Szefler SJ, Wenzel SE, Wright RJ, Smith RA, Erzurum SC. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec 1; 192(11):1366-72.
Beck JM, Schloss PD, Venkataraman A, Twigg H, Jablonski KA, Bushman FD, Campbell TB, Charlson ES, Collman RG, Crothers K, Curtis JL, Drews KL, Flores SC, Fontenot AP, Foulkes MA, Frank I, Ghedin E, Huang L, Lynch SV, Morris A, Palmer BE, Schmidt TM, Sodergren E, Weinstock GM, Young VB. Multicenter Comparison of Lung and Oral Microbiomes of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Individuals. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec 1; 192(11):1335-44.
Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Swainson LA, Chu SN, Ortiz AM, Santee CA, Petriello A, Dunham RM, Fadrosh DW, Lin DL, Faruqi AA, Huang Y, Apetrei C, Pandrea I, Hecht FM, Pilcher CD, Klatt NR, Brenchley JM, Lynch SV, McCune JM. Gut-Resident Lactobacillus Abundance Associates with IDO1 Inhibition and Th17 Dynamics in SIV-Infected Macaques. Cell Rep. 2015 Nov 24; 13(8):1589-97.
Huang YJ, Nariya S, Harris JM, Lynch SV, Choy DF, Arron JR, Boushey H. The airway microbiome in patients with severe asthma: Associations with disease features and severity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Oct; 136(4):874-84.
Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Wegienka G, Havstad S, Levin AM, Lynch SV, Ownby DR, Rundle AG, Woodcroft KJ, Zoratti EM, Johnson CC. Does pet-keeping modify the association of delivery mode with offspring body size? Matern Child Health J. 2015 Jun; 19(6):1426-33.
Srinivasan R, Karaoz U, Volegova M, MacKichan J, Kato-Maeda M, Miller S, Nadarajan R, Brodie EL, Lynch SV. Use of 16S rRNA gene for identification of a broad range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0117617.
Ardeshir A, Narayan NR, Méndez-Lagares G, Lu D, Rauch M, Huang Y, Van Rompay KK, Lynch SV, Hartigan-O'Connor DJ. Breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop distinct gut microbiotas and immune systems. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Sep 3; 6(252):252ra120.
Mar JS, Nagalingam NA, Song Y, Onizawa M, Lee JW, Lynch SV. Amelioration of DSS-induced murine colitis by VSL#3 supplementation is primarily associated with changes in ileal microbiota composition. Gut Microbes. 2014 Jul 1; 5(4):494-503.
Lynch SV, Wood RA, Boushey H, Bacharier LB, Bloomberg GR, Kattan M, O'Connor GT, Sandel MT, Calatroni A, Matsui E, Johnson CC, Lynn H, Visness CM, Jaffee KF, Gergen PJ, Gold DR, Wright RJ, Fujimura K, Rauch M, Busse WW, Gern JE. Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Sep; 134(3):593-601.e12.
Iwai S, Huang D, Fong S, Jarlsberg LG, Worodria W, Yoo S, Cattamanchi A, Davis JL, Kaswabuli S, Segal M, Huang L, Lynch SV. The lung microbiome of Ugandan HIV-infected pneumonia patients is compositionally and functionally distinct from that of San Franciscan patients. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95726.
Fujimura KE, Demoor T, Rauch M, Faruqi AA, Jang S, Johnson CC, Boushey HA, Zoratti E, Ownby D, Lukacs NW, Lynch SV. House dust exposure mediates gut microbiome Lactobacillus enrichment and airway immune defense against allergens and virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 14; 111(2):805-10.
Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Dunham RM, Iwai S, Maher MC, Albright RG, Broadhurst MJ, Hernandez RD, Lederman MM, Huang Y, Somsouk M, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Lynch SV, McCune JM. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with HIV disease progression and tryptophan catabolism. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Jul 10; 5(193):193ra91.
Morris A, Beck JM, Schloss PD, Campbell TB, Crothers K, Curtis JL, Flores SC, Fontenot AP, Ghedin E, Huang L, Jablonski K, Kleerup E, Lynch SV, Sodergren E, Twigg H, Young VB, Bassis CM, Venkataraman A, Schmidt TM, Weinstock GM. Comparison of the respiratory microbiome in healthy nonsmokers and smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 May 15; 187(10):1067-75.
Lozupone C, Cota-Gomez A, Palmer BE, Linderman DJ, Charlson ES, Sodergren E, Mitreva M, Abubucker S, Martin J, Yao G, Campbell TB, Flores SC, Ackerman G, Stombaugh J, Ursell L, Beck JM, Curtis JL, Young VB, Lynch SV, Huang L, Weinstock GM, Knox KS, Twigg H, Morris A, Ghedin E, Bushman FD, Collman RG, Knight R, Fontenot AP. Widespread colonization of the lung by Tropheryma whipplei in HIV infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 May 15; 187(10):1110-7.
Lynch SV, Goldfarb KC, Wild YK, Kong W, De Lisle RC, Brodie EL. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice exhibit aberrant gastrointestinal microbiota. Gut Microbes. 2013 Jan-Feb; 4(1):41-7.
Fujimura KE, Rauch M, Matsui E, Iwai S, Calatroni A, Lynn H, Mitchell H, Johnson CC, Gern JE, Togias A, Boushey HA, Kennedy S, Lynch SV. Development of a standardized approach for environmental microbiota investigations related to asthma development in children. J Microbiol Methods. 2012 Nov; 91(2):231-9.
Schwarzer C, Fu Z, Patanwala M, Hum L, Lopez-Guzman M, Illek B, Kong W, Lynch SV, Machen TE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated homoserine lactone C12 rapidly activates apoptosis in airway epithelia. Cell Microbiol. 2012 May; 14(5):698-709.
Han MK, Huang YJ, Lipuma JJ, Boushey HA, Boucher RC, Cookson WO, Curtis JL, Erb-Downward J, Lynch SV, Sethi S, Toews GB, Young VB, Wolfgang MC, Huffnagle GB, Martinez FJ. Significance of the microbiome in obstructive lung disease. Thorax. 2012 May; 67(5):456-63.
Ramsey BW, Banks-Schlegel S, Accurso FJ, Boucher RC, Cutting GR, Engelhardt JF, Guggino WB, Karp CL, Knowles MR, Kolls JK, LiPuma JJ, Lynch S, McCray PB, Rubenstein RC, Singh PK, Sorscher E, Welsh M. Future directions in early cystic fibrosis lung disease research: an NHLBI workshop report. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Apr 15; 185(8):887-92.
Song Y, Baer M, Srinivasan R, Lima J, Yarranton G, Bebbington C, Lynch SV. PcrV antibody-antibiotic combination improves survival in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected mice. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Aug; 31(8):1837-45.
Xu X, Zhang H, Song Y, Lynch SV, Lowell CA, Wiener-Kronish JP, Caughey GH. Strain-dependent induction of neutrophil histamine production and cell death by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Feb; 91(2):275-84.
Havstad S, Wegienka G, Zoratti EM, Lynch SV, Boushey HA, Nicholas C, Ownby DR, Johnson CC. Effect of prenatal indoor pet exposure on the trajectory of total IgE levels in early childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Oct; 128(4):880-885.e4.
Saulnier DM, Riehle K, Mistretta TA, Diaz MA, Mandal D, Raza S, Weidler EM, Qin X, Coarfa C, Milosavljevic A, Petrosino JF, Highlander S, Gibbs R, Lynch SV, Shulman RJ, Versalovic J. Gastrointestinal microbiome signatures of pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov; 141(5):1782-91.
Fricks-Lima J, Hendrickson CM, Allgaier M, Zhuo H, Wiener-Kronish JP, Lynch SV, Yang K. Differences in biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from airways of mechanically ventilated patients and cystic fibrosis patients. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011 Apr; 37(4):309-15.
Huang YJ, Nelson CE, Brodie EL, Desantis TZ, Baek MS, Liu J, Woyke T, Allgaier M, Bristow J, Wiener-Kronish JP, Sutherland ER, King TS, Icitovic N, Martin RJ, Calhoun WJ, Castro M, Denlinger LC, Dimango E, Kraft M, Peters SP, Wasserman SI, Wechsler ME, Boushey HA, Lynch SV. Airway microbiota and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suboptimally controlled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Feb; 127(2):372-381.e1-3.
Fujimura KE, Johnson CC, Ownby DR, Cox MJ, Brodie EL, Havstad SL, Zoratti EM, Woodcroft KJ, Bobbitt KR, Wegienka G, Boushey HA, Lynch SV. Man's best friend? The effect of pet ownership on house dust microbial communities. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Aug; 126(2):410-2, 412.e1-3.
Roediger FC, Slusher NA, Allgaier S, Cox MJ, Pletcher SD, Goldberg AN, Lynch SV. Nucleic acid extraction efficiency and bacterial recovery from maxillary sinus mucosal samples obtained by brushing or biopsy. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2010 Jul-Aug; 24(4):263-5.
Cox MJ, Allgaier M, Taylor B, Baek MS, Huang YJ, Daly RA, Karaoz U, Andersen GL, Brown R, Fujimura KE, Wu B, Tran D, Koff J, Kleinhenz ME, Nielson D, Brodie EL, Lynch SV. Airway microbiota and pathogen abundance in age-stratified cystic fibrosis patients. PLoS One. 2010; 5(6):e11044.
Shane AL, Cabana MD, Vidry S, Merenstein D, Hummelen R, Ellis CL, Heimbach JT, Hempel S, Lynch SV, Sanders ME, Tancredi DJ. Guide to designing, conducting, publishing and communicating results of clinical studies involving probiotic applications in human participants. Gut Microbes. 2010 7; 1(4):243-253.
Singh G, Wu B, Baek MS, Camargo A, Nguyen A, Slusher NA, Srinivasan R, Wiener-Kronish JP, Lynch SV. Secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III cytotoxins is dependent on pseudomonas quinolone signal concentration. Microb Pathog. 2010 Oct; 49(4):196-203.
Lynch SV, Flanagan JL, Sawa T, Fang A, Baek MS, Rubio-Mills A, Ajayi T, Yanagihara K, Hirakata Y, Kohno S, Misset B, Nguyen JC, Wiener-Kronish JP. Polymorphisms in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion protein, PcrV - implications for anti-PcrV immunotherapy. Microb Pathog. 2010 Jun; 48(6):197-204.
Klepac-Ceraj V, Lemon KP, Martin TR, Allgaier M, Kembel SW, Knapp AA, Lory S, Brodie EL, Lynch SV, Bohannan BJ, Green JL, Maurer BA, Kolter R. Relationship between cystic fibrosis respiratory tract bacterial communities and age, genotype, antibiotics and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Environ Microbiol. 2010 May; 12(5):1293-303.
Huang YJ, Kim E, Cox MJ, Brodie EL, Brown R, Wiener-Kronish JP, Lynch SV. A persistent and diverse airway microbiota present during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. OMICS. 2010 Feb; 14(1):9-59.
Cox MJ, Huang YJ, Fujimura KE, Liu JT, McKean M, Boushey HA, Segal MR, Brodie EL, Cabana MD, Lynch SV. Lactobacillus casei abundance is associated with profound shifts in the infant gut microbiome. PLoS One. 2010; 5(1):e8745.
Ivanov II, Atarashi K, Manel N, Brodie EL, Shima T, Karaoz U, Wei D, Goldfarb KC, Santee CA, Lynch SV, Tanoue T, Imaoka A, Itoh K, Takeda K, Umesaki Y, Honda K, Littman DR. Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria. Cell. 2009 Oct 30; 139(3):485-98.
Montor WR, Huang J, Hu Y, Hainsworth E, Lynch S, Kronish JW, Ordonez CL, Logvinenko T, Lory S, LaBaer J. Genome-wide study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane protein immunogenicity using self-assembling protein microarrays. Infect Immun. 2009 Nov; 77(11):4877-86.
El-Solh AA, Amsterdam D, Alhajhusain A, Akinnusi ME, Saliba RG, Lynch SV, Wiener-Kronish JP. Matrix metalloproteases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with type III Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. J Infect. 2009 Jul; 59(1):49-55.
Zhuo H, Yang K, Lynch SV, Dotson RH, Glidden DV, Singh G, Webb WR, Elicker BM, Garcia O, Brown R, Sawa Y, Misset B, Wiener-Kronish JP. Increased mortality of ventilated patients with endotracheal Pseudomonas aeruginosa without clinical signs of infection. Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep; 36(9):2495-503.
Ganter MT, Roux J, Su G, Lynch SV, Deutschman CS, Weiss YG, Christiaans SC, Myazawa B, Kipnis E, Wiener-Kronish JP, Howard M, Pittet JF. Role of small GTPases and alphavbeta5 integrin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced increase in lung endothelial permeability. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009 Jan; 40(1):108-18.
El Solh AA, Akinnusi ME, Wiener-Kronish JP, Lynch SV, Pineda LA, Szarpa K. Persistent infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep 1; 178(5):513-9.
Song Y, Pittet JF, Huang X, He H, Lynch SV, Violette SM, Weinreb PH, Horan GS, Carmago A, Sawa Y, Bernstein XL, Wiener-Kronish JP. Role of integrin alphav beta6 in acute lung injury induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Immun. 2008 Jun; 76(6):2325-32.
Wong-Beringer A, Wiener-Kronish J, Lynch S, Flanagan J. Comparison of type III secretion system virulence among fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 Apr; 14(4):330-6.
Lynch SV, Dixon L, Benoit MR, Brodie EL, Keyhan M, Hu P, Ackerley DF, Andersen GL, Matin A. Role of the rapA gene in controlling antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Oct; 51(10):3650-8.
Flanagan JL, Brodie EL, Weng L, Lynch SV, Garcia O, Brown R, Hugenholtz P, DeSantis TZ, Andersen GL, Wiener-Kronish JP, Bristow J. Loss of bacterial diversity during antibiotic treatment of intubated patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Jun; 45(6):1954-62.
Song Y, Lynch SV, Flanagan J, Zhuo H, Tom W, Dotson RH, Baek MS, Rubio-Mills A, Singh G, Kipnis E, Glidden D, Brown R, Garcia O, Wiener-Kronish JP. Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids are associated with increased mortality in a cohort of patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Anesthesiology. 2007 Feb; 106(2):252-61.
Augustin DK, Song Y, Baek MS, Sawa Y, Singh G, Taylor B, Rubio-Mills A, Flanagan JL, Wiener-Kronish JP, Lynch SV. Presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide O antigens affects type III secretion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2007 Mar; 189(6):2203-9.
Lynch SV, Mukundakrishnan K, Benoit MR, Ayyaswamy PS, Matin A. Escherichia coli biofilms formed under low-shear modeled microgravity in a ground-based system. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Dec; 72(12):7701-10.
Carmody M, Byrne B, Murphy B, Breen C, Lynch S, Flood E, Finnan S, Caffrey P. Analysis and manipulation of amphotericin biosynthetic genes by means of modified phage KC515 transduction techniques. Gene. 2004 Dec 8; 343(1):107-15.
Irwin JA, Lynch SV, Coughlan S, Baker PJ, Gudmundsson HM, Alfredsson GA, Rice DW, Engel PC. Alanine dehydrogenase from the psychrophilic bacterium strain PA-43: overexpression, molecular characterization, and sequence analysis. Extremophiles. 2003 Apr; 7(2):135-43.